Tools are enzymes, vehicle DNA, passenger DNA. Recombinant DNA technology involves the following steps are :
1. Isolation of DNA.
2. Fragmentation of DNA by restriction endonucleases.
3. Isolation of the desired DNA fragment.
4. Amplification of the gene of interest.
5. Ligation of the DNA fragment into a vector using DNA ligase.
6. Transfer of recombination DNA into the host.
7. Culturing the host cells on a suitable medium on a large scale.
8. Extraction of the desired product.
9. Downstream processing of the product as a finished product ready for marketing.