Write short notes on artificial vegetative propagation

Write short notes on artificial vegetative propagation.

Artificial Vegetative Propagation
Vegetative propagation can also be done artificially and the man-made methods for vegetative propagation are called artificial methods of vegetative propagation.
They include:
(a) Cuttings In this method, a small piece of any plant
organ (stem, root or leaf) is used for propagation, e.g. leaves (Bryophyllum), roots (tamarind), stems
(sugarcane, grapes, rose and Bougainvillea).
(b) Layering In this method, roots are artificially induced on the stem branches before they are detached from the parent plant, e.g. jasmine, grapevine, litchi, orange, etc.
supporting portion of one plant called stock, is joined with the twig of another plant called scion, e.g. rose, apple, plum, peach, mango, etc.
© Micropropagation This method includes propagation of plants by culturing the cells, tissues and organs in laboratory which is called tissue culture. Initially, this forms an undifferentiated mass of cells called callus. Later on, this callus differentiates to produce many small plantlets.