Write a note on the First Anglo Maratha War.
The Marathas were largely remained disunited since the Third Battle of Panipet (1761). The internal conflict among the Marathas was best utilized by the British in their expansionist policy. In 1775, there was a dispute for the post of pesewa between Madhav Rao and his uncle Ragunatha Rao. The British authorities in Bombay concluded the Treaty of Surat with Raghunatha Rao in March 1775. Ragunantha Rao promised to Cede Bussein and Salsette to the British but later when he was unwilling to fulfil his promise. The British captured them. This action of the Bombay Government was not approved by Warren Hastings. In 1776, Warren Hastings sent Colonel Upton to settle the issue. He cancelled the Treaty of Surat and concluded the Treaty of Purander with Nana Fadnavis, another Maratha Leader. According to this treaty Madhava Rao 11 was accepted as the new peshwa and the British retained saisetle along with a heavy war indemnity.
However, the Home authorities rejected the treaty of Purander. Warren Hastings also considered the treaty of Purandar as a “Scrap of Paper” and sanctioned operations against the Marathas. In the meantime the British force sent by the Bombay Government was defeated by the Marathas.
In 1781, Warren Hastings dispatched Britishdroops under’the command of Captain Popham. He defeated the Maratha Chief, Mahadaji Scinidia, in a number of small battles and captured Gwalior. Later in May 1782, the treaty of Salbai was signed between Warran Hastings and Mahadaji Scindia. Accordingly, Salsette and Bassein were given to the British. Ragunath Rao was pensioned off and Madhar Rao II was accepted the peshwa.