Who fought in Battle of Otumba? What was the reason and the outcome?
The Battle of Otumba was a battle fought between a small band of around 500 Spanish conquistadors and allies against a vastly larger Aztec army. The battle occurred after the Spanish army had been expelled from the Aztec capital after attacking citizens during a religious ritual within the city. Many of the Spanish troops and followers had been killed in the escape from the city and the army was now extremely low on supplies and equipment. They attempted to make a quick retreat to allied territory but were intercepted by the Aztecs at Otumba. The leader of the Spanish army, Hernan Cortes, knew that he could not defeat the Aztecs by conventional means due to their massive numerical advantage and so chose to focus on two separate tactics. The first was to use his remaining cavalry to scare the Aztec soldiers, as many of them had never fought against or even seen horses before. He ordered his cavalry to charge into the ranks of the Aztec troops and in doing so caused widespread panic through their ranks. His second tactic was to focus on the leaders and generals of the Aztec army, believing that if he killed the Aztec leader, Matlatzincatl, he would be able to rout the remaining army. He was able to spot the Aztec leader due to his lavish armor and large battle standard and his troops eventually managed to kill him and his bodyguards. This sent the Aztec army into a mass riot and allowed the Spanish to successfully retreat to allied territory.