What were the main causes of the Russian Revolution?
Main causes were:
Autocratic rule of Tsars: In 1914, the Russian emperor was Tsar Nicholas II. He fought a number of wars to expand his empire in the north and west in Europe. He had borne the expenditure of war by taxing the common people of Russia.
Conditions of peasants: Majority of the Russians were agriculturalists. Major part of the land was owned by nobles and clergy and these peasants worked as farmers on daily wages. They were paid less and worked more and sometimes under debt, they were not even paid wages.
Status of industries: Industry was found in pockets. Prominent industrial areas were St. Petersburg and Moscow. Craftsmen undertook much of the production, but large factories existed alongside crafts workshops. Foreign investment in industries increased with the extension of Russia’s railway network.
Conditions of workers in the industries: Most industries were owned by private
industrialists. Though the government supervised factories’ working hours and wages of the workers, but still rules were broken. Women workers were also paid less than men. Some workers formed associations to help members in times of unemployment and financial hardships. ,
Formation of socialist parties: All political parties were illegal in Russia before 1914. The Russian Social Democratic Workers Party was founded in 1898 by socialists, who respected Marxist ideas. But because of government policies, it had to operate secretly as an illegal organisation. It set up a newspaper, mobilised workers and organised strikes.