In 1834, the customs union of Zollverein was formed at the initiative of Prussia and was joined by most of the German states.
- The union abolished tariff barriers and reduced the number of currencies from over thirty to two.
- The creation of a network of railways further stimulated mobility, harnessing economic interests to national unification.
- A wave of economic nationalism strengthened the wider nationalist sentiments growing at the time.
- Varied currencies and weights and measures were obstacles to economic growth, so the creation of a unified economic territory allowing the unhindered movement of goods, people and capital was needed. So, Zollverein was formed.