What role did the permits issued by the Colonial Government play in the lives of the African pastoral groups?

The large grazing grounds of Africa were turned into cultivation field and game reserves. The pastoralists in Africa were not allowed to enter these reserves and were forced to live within the confines of special reserves.
They were not allowed to move out with their stock without special permits. It was difficult to get permits
without trouble and harassment. The permits specified the periods in which they could be legally stay within a forest. If they overstayed, they were liable to fines.
Those found guilty of disobeying the rules were severely punished. Further in many regions, they were prohibited from participating in any form of trade.
This restriction and the permits issued by the colonisers adversely affected both tbe pastoral and trading activities of the African pastoralists.

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