What is the action of soap particles on the greasy cloth?

  1. Soaps and detergents make oil and dirt present on the cloth come out into water, there by making the cloth clean.
  2. Soap has one polar end and one non-polar end.
  3. The polar end is hydrophilic in nature and this end is attracted towards water.
  4. The non-polar end is hydrophobic, in nature and it is attracted towards grease or oil on the cloth, but not attracted towards water.
  5. When soap is dissolved in water, its hydrophobic ends attach themselves to dirt and remove it from the cloth.
  6. The hydrophobic end of the soap molecules move towards the dirt or grease particles.
  7. The hydrophobic ends attached to the dirt particle and try to pull out.
  8. The molecules of soap surround the dirt particle at the centre of the cluster and form a spherical structure called micelle.
  9. These micelles remain suspended in water like particles in a colloidal solu¬tion.
  10. The various micelles present in water do not come together to form a precipitate as each micelle repels the other because of the ion-ion repulsion.
  11. Thus, the dust particles remain trapped in micelles and are easily rinsed away with water.
  12. Hence, soap micelles remove dirt by dissolving in water.