what is molality, normality and molarity and give there formula

**Molarity**

Molarity (M) is defined as the number of moles of solute per **liter** of solution.

molarity = moles of solute / liters of solution

**Molality**

Molality ( *m* ) is defined as the number of moles of solute per **kilogram** of solvent.

molality = moles of solute / kilograms of solvent

Although their spellings are similar, molarity and molality cannot be interchanged. Compare the molar and molal volumes of 1 mol of solute dissolved in CCl_{4} ( *d* = 1.59 g / mL)

By definition, a 1 M solution would contain 1 mol of solute in **exactly** 1.00 L of CCl_{4} , and a 1 *m* solution would contain 1 mol of solute in 629 mL of CCl_{4} . 1 kg of CCl_{4} x (1000 g / 1 kg) x (mL / 1.59 g) = 629 mL CCl_{4}

**Normality**

Normality (N) is another ratio that relates the amount of solute to the total volume of solution.

It is defined as the number of **equivalents** per liter of solution:

normality = number of equivalents / 1 L of solution

There is a very simple relationship between normality and molarity:

*N* = *n* � M (where * n* is an integer)

For an acid solution,

*n*is the number of H

^{+}provided by a formula unit of acid.

**example:**A

_{3}M H

_{2}SO

_{4}solution is the same as a 6 N H

_{2}SO

_{4}solution.

For a basic solution,

*n*is the number of OH

^{-}provided by a formula unit of base.

**example:**A 1 M Ca(OH)

_{2}solution is the same as a 2N Ca(OH)

_{2}solution.