What do you mean by the mechanism of the monsoon?
The climate of India is strongly influenced by monsoon winds. ‘Monsoon’ refers to the seasonal reversal in the wind direction during a year. To understand the mechanism of the monsoon, some factors are important. These are :
- The differential heating and cooling of land and water creates low pressure on the landmass of India but the seas around experience comparatively high pressure.
- The Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) in summer season shift its position over the Ganga plain. This is equatorial trough normally positioned about 5°N of the equator.
- The presence of the high-pressure area, East of Nadagascar, approximately at 20°S over the Indian Ocean, affects the Indian Monsoon.
- During summer, the Tibetan plateau gets intensely heated. This results in strong vertical air currents and the formation of low pressure over the plateau.
- The difference in pressure over Tahiti (Pacific Ocean, 18°S/ 149°W) and Darwin in Northern Australia (Indian Ocean, 12°30’S/131°E) is computed to predict the intensity of the monsoon.
- If the pressure differences were negative, it would mean below average and late monsoon.