What are the six major controls of the climate of the world?

What are the six major controls of the climate of the world?

  • Latitude: Due to the round shape of the Earth, the amount of solar energy received varies according to latitude. As a result, air temperature decreases from the equator towards the poles.
  • Altitude: As one moves up to the higher altitudes, the atmosphere becomes less dense and temperature decreases. Therefore, hills are the cooler during summers.
  • Pressure and winds: Pressure and wind system of an area depend on the latitude and altitude of the place. Thus, it influences the temperature and rainfall pattern.
  • Distance from the sea: If the region is close to the sea, it makes the temperature moderate but if it is away from the sea, it experiences extreme weather conditions.
  • Ocean currents: Ocean currents alongwith the onshore winds affect the climate of a coastal area. Any coastal area with warm or cold currents flowing past it, will become warm or cold if the winds are onshore.
  • Relief: High mountains act as barriers for cold and hot winds. They may also cause precipitation if they lie in the path of rain-bearing winds. The leeward side of mountains remains dry, whereas the windward side is able to receive rain.