what are electrophiles and nucleophiles? explain with examples
Nucleophiles: A nucleophile is a species (anion or a molecule) which is strongly attracted to a region of positive charge.
Nucleophiles are either fully negative ions or have a strong –ve charge. Common nucleophiles are hydroxide ions, cyanide ions, water and ammonia.
Notice that each of these contains at least one lone pair of electrons either on an atom carrying a full negative charge or on a very electronegative atom carrying a substantial-charge.
Electrophile: A electrophile is a species (cation) which is electron deficient hence attacked by negatively charged or electron rich species.
It participated in a chemical reaction by accepting an electron pair from nucleophile.
common electrophiles are Cl+, NO2+, HSO3+ etc.