‘Rainfall in India is orographic in nature’. Give and explain with reference to the distribution of rainfall and the effect of relief on its distribution.
Orographic rainfall occurs when rain bearing winds strike against the mountains and result in precipitation on the windward side of the mountains. In India, rainfall is orographic in nature as heavy rains occurs on the windward slopes of the Western Ghats and scanty rainfall on the leeward side.
Thus, Mahabaleshwar lying on the windward side receives more than 250 cm of rainfall, while Pune on the leeward side records less than 70 cm of rainfall. This is also true for the hilly regions in north east India which receive orographic rainfall.