(a)They are flattened (e.g., Opuntia, Euphorbia).
(b)They are green stems of unlimited growth which have taken over the function of photosynthesis.
©True leaves are caducous.
(d)Formation of phyllodades helps the plant to grow in dry habitats because transpiration is little from the stem.
(a)They are green stems of limited growth which have taken over the function of photosynthesis from the leaves.
(b)The true leaves are reduced to scale or spines.
©In’Asparagus, the cladodes are slightly flattened, fleshy, straight or curved pointed structures which develop in clusters in the axils of scale leaves.
(d)The main stem possesses leaf spines.
(e)Cladodes are a modification to reduce transpiration.
e.g., Asparagus, Ruscus.