Part A: Calculate for a valence electron in an oxygen atom.
Part B: Calculate for the 4s electron in a copper atom, m Cu.
Part C: Calculate for a 3d electron in a copper atom, m Cu.
Calculate the as follows:
here, Z is atomic number and ‘s’ is shielding constant.
Rules calculating the shielding constant:
write the electronic configuration like shown below.
If we want to calculate the shielding constant for 2p, then the electrons the right Side of 2p is zero
(i.e. no shielding contribution)
If the group is ‘s’ or ‘p’ then the amount 0.35 for each electron in n shell, 0.85 for each electron in (n-l) shell, for an electron in (n-2) shell.
If the group is ‘d’ or f ’ then the amount 0.35 for each electron in n shell, and 1.00 for the remaining electron on left side.