List four causes of biodiversity loss.
The major causes of species losses in a geographical region are:
(i) Habitat loss and fragmentation.
(ii) Over-exploitation of natural resources.
(iii) Alien species invasions can cause decline or extinction of indigenous species.
(iv) Co-extinctions, i.e. when a species become extinct, the plant and animal species associated with it in an obligatory way, also become extinct.