How is federalism practiced in India ? Or What are the constitutional provisions regarding the practical application of Indian federalism?

Practical Application of Indian Federalism.
Like other federalism, in India also Constitutional provisions are necessary forthe success of federalism but these are not sufficient for its practical application.
If the federal experiment has succeeded in India, it is not merely because of the clearly laid out constitutional provisions.
The real success of federalism in India can be attributed to the nature of democratic politics in our country i.e.,

  1. spirit of freedom
  2. respect for diversity
  3. desire for living together
  4. secular outlook
    Major tests or experiments for the success of federalism.
    (i) Linguistic States : Regarding federalism the first and a major test for democratic politics in our country was the creation of linguistic states. In 1947, the boundaries of several old states of India were changed to ensure that people who spoke the same languages lived in the same state.
    The formation of linguistic states has made the country more united and also made the administration easier.
    (ii) Language Policy : Framing of language policy was another test for Indian federation. Under the language policy Hindi has been identified as the official language. At the same time many safeguards have been provided for other languages.
    (iii) Central-State Relations: Restructring the centre- state relations is one more way in which federalism has been strengthened in practice. The period after 1990 saw the beginning of the new era of coalition government and the rise of regional political parties in many states of the country.
    All these tests and practical aspects show that in India federal power sharing is more effective today than it was in the early years after the Constitution came into force.