How do Mendel’s experiments show that the traits may be dominant or recessive

How do Mendel’s experiments show that the

  1. traits may be dominant or recessive,
  2. traits are inherited independently?


  1. When Mendel cross pollinated pure tall pea plants with pure dwarf pea plants, only tall plants
    were obtained in Ft generation. On self pollinating the F1 progeny, both tall and dwarf plants appeared in F2 generation in the ratio 3:1.
    Appearance of tall character in both the Ft and F2 shows that it is a dominant character. The absence of dwarf character in F1 generation and its reappearance in F2 shows dwarfness is the recessive character.
  2. When Mendel first crossed pure-breed pea plants having round-yellow seeds with pure-breed pea plants having wrinkled-green seeds, he found that only round-yellow seeds were produced in the first-generation. No wrinkled-green seeds were obtained in the F] generation. From this, it was concluded that round shape and yellow colour of the seeds were dominant traits over the wrinkled shape and green colour of the seeds.
    When the Fj generation pea plants having round-yellow seeds were cross-bred by self-pollination, then four types of seeds having different combinations of shape and colour were obtained in second generation (F2). These were round-yellow, round-green, wrinkled-yellow and wrinkled-green seeds.
    Such a cross is known as dihybrid cross as two sets of corresponding characters are considered. Mendel observed that along with round-yellow and wrinkled-green, two new combinations of characteristics, round-green and wrinkled-yellow, had appeared in the F2 generation. On the basis of this observation, Mendel concluded that though the two pairs of original characteristics (seed colour and shape) combine in the F1 generation, they get separated and behave independently in the subsequent generation.