How did the changes brought about by colonial rule affect the lives of pastoralists?
- When grazing lands were taken over and turned into cultivated fields, the available area of pastureland declined. Due to reservation of forests, cattle herders could no longer freely let their cattle graze in the forests.
- As pasturelands disappeared under the plough, the existing animal stock had to feed on whatever grazing land remained. This led to continuous intensive grazing of these pastures, which did not allow time for the natural restoration of vegetation growth.
- This ultimately led to shortage of forests for animals and deterioration of animal stock. Underfed cattle died in large numbers during scarcities and famines.