Fitness is the end result of the ability to adapt and get selected by Nature.Explain with suitable example

Industrial Melanism : Before industrialization started in England it was observed, there were more white-winged peppered moth, on trees than dark winged moth, but after industrialization, there were more dark- winged moths in the same area,predators spot a moth against a contrasting background, post industrialization the tree trunks became dark due to industrial smoke and soot, Under this condition the white-winged moth did not survive, due to predators, but the dark-winged moth managed to survive. or any other example explained under the following heads in the text book - fitness, selection and adaptation.