Explain with examples, how mining and over irrigation are responsible for land degradation?

(i) Mining sites are abandoned after excavation work is completed leaving deep scars and traces of over burdening.
(ii) In states like Jharkhand, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh and Orissa deforestation due to mining have caused severe land degradation.
(iii) In the states of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh, over irrigation is responsible for degradation due to water logging leading to increase in salinity and alkalinity in the soil.
(iv) The Mineral processing like grinding of limestone for cement industry and calcite and soapstone for ceramic industry generate large quantity of dust in the atmosphere.
(v) It retards the process of infiltration of water into the soil.

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