Explain the trading procedure on a stock exchange

Trading procedure :

  1. Selection of a Broker
    The first step is to select a broker, who will buy/sell securities on behalf of the speculator/investor. This is necessary because trading of securities can only be done through SEBI registered brokers, who are members of stock exchange. Brokers may be individuals, partnership firms and corporate bodies.
  2. Opening Demat Account with Depository
    The next step is to open a demat account. Demat (Dematerialised) account refers to an account which an Indian citizen must open with the depository participant (banks and stock brokers) to trade in listed securities in "electronic form.
    The securities are held in the electronic form by a depository. ‘Depository’ is an institution/organisation which holds securities (e.g. shares, debentures, bonds, mutual funds, etc) in electronic form, in which trading is done.
  3. Placing the Order
    The next step is to place the order with the broker. The order can be communicated to the broker either personally or through telephone, cell phone, e-mail, etc.
    The instructions should specify the securities to be bought or sold and the price range within which the order is to be executed. Only the securities of listed companies can be traded on the stock exchange.
  4. Executing the Order
    According to the instructions of the investor, the broker buys or sells securities. The broker, then issues a contract note. A copy of the contract note contains the name and the price of securities, names of the parties, brokerage charges, etc. It is duly signed by the broker.
  5. Settlement
    This is the last stage in the trading of securities done by the brokers on behalf of their clients. The mode of settlement depends upon the nature of the contract. Equity spot markets follow a T + 2 rolling settlement. This means that any trade taking place on Monday gets settled by Wednesday. Stock, exchange operates from Monday to Friday between 9:55am and 3:30pm. Each exchange has its own clearing house, which assumes all settlement risk.