Explain the methods of artificial propagation in various plants

Explain the methods of artificial propagation in various plants.

1) Cutting: Some plants can grow individually when a piece of the parent plant having bud is cut off from the existing plant. The lower part of this cutting is buried in moist soil.
After few days the cut parts having buds grow as an individual plant after developing roots. E.g. Rose, Hibiscus.
2) Layering: A branch of the plant with atleast one node is bent towards the ground and part of it is covered with moist soil. After a few days new roots develop from the part of the branch buried in the soil. The branch is then cut off from the parent plant.
E.g: Nertum, Jasmine
3) Grafting: Two plants are joined together in such a way that two stems join and grow as a single plant. This technique is very useful in propagating improved varieties of various flowers and fruits. Grafting is used to obtain a plant with desirable character. E.g: Mango, citrus, apple, rose.