Explain the main provisions of the Forest and Criminal Tribes Acts

Explain the main provisions of the Forest and Criminal Tribes Acts. How did they affect the life of the pastoralists?

The Provision of Forest Act:
The Act divided forest into three categories, viz ‘reserved forests’, where no pastoral activity was allowed, protected forests where pastoral activity was strictly regulated and needed permit to entry, and village forest.
The Criminal Tribe Act hadfollowing provisions
(i) Many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralist were classified as Criminal Tribes.
(ii) They were stated to be criminal by nature and birth.
(iii) They were expected to live only in notified village settlements and not allowed to move without permit.
(iv) The village police was to keep strict watch on them. Impact of these acts on lives of pastoralists .
The above measures lead to serious shortage of pastures.
(i) Movement of cattle herders and shepherds was restricted so they had to feed on limited available stock.
(ii) Nomadic people had to continuously shift their places to suit the colonial rule and find enough pastures for their cattle.
(iii) Continuous use of same land for pasture, as their movement was restricted, lead to deterioration of quality of pasture. Underfed cattle died in large number which affected the livelihood of pastoralist.