Explain in detail about the role of philosophers in the French Revolution.
The revolutionary ideas of philosophers encouraged people to fight for their rights. The role of philosophers in the French Revolution can be described as follows:
Voltaire believed that man’s destiny was in his own hands. This idea encouraged the people to fight for their rights.
John Locke criticised the divine and absolute rights of the rulers. This idea helped in understanding the injustice done by autocratic rulers.
Rousseau put forward the idea of formation of a government based on a social contract between people and their representatives. This encouraged people to think of changing their government, if they were not satisfied with it.
Montesquieu believed that all powers should not be concentrated in one person’s hand. They should be divided among the Legislature, the Executive and the Judiciary. This idea became a great instrument against the despotic autocratic rule.
The ideas of these philosophers influenced the common people and inspired them to protest against the system.