Explain Coriolis Force and Western disturbances. How do they affect the climate of India?
It is an apparent force caused by the Earth’s rotation. It is responsible for deflecting winds towards the right in the Northern hemisphere and towards the left in the Southern hemisphere.
Effect of Coriolis Force on the climate of India
- Under the effect of Coriolis force, the trade winds moving from sub-tropical high-pressure belts to equatorial low-pressure belts become North-East trade winds in the Northern hemisphere and South-East trade winds in the Southern hemisphere.
- These winds generally carry very little moisture as they originate and blow over land. Thus, they bring little or no rain.
The Western disturbances are weather phenomena of the winter months brought in by westerly flow from the Mediterranean region. They cause rainfall in North and North-Western part of India.
Effect of Western Disturbances on the climate of India
- By causing cyclonic rainfall in the month of winter, which is otherwise dry, Western disturbance influences the weather of the North and North-Western India.
- Tropical cyclones occur during the monsoon, as well as in October-November. These are part of the easterly flow. These disturbances affect the coastal regions of Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
- Although the amount of rainfall is meagre, it is highly beneficial to the Rabi crops, especially the wheat.
- They cause snowfall in the mountains.