Explain any three psychological barriers to effective communication

Psychological barriers :
The state of mind of both sender and receiver affect the process of communication, e.g. a worried or angry person cannot communicate effectively.
Some of the psychological barriers are given below:
(i) Premature evaluation Communication is likely to fail, if the receiver evaluates the meaning of message before the sender completes the message. Such premature evaluation may occur due to pre-conceived notions or prejudices against the communicator.’
(it) Lack of attention When the receivers mind is pre-occupied, he fails to understand what is being said. e.g. a worker explains some problems to his supervisor. The supervisor is pre-occupied with a telephone call and does not grasp the message.
(Hi) Loss by transmission, and poor retention When communication passes through various levels, it may result in loss by transmission. Sometimes, poor retention of people due to lack of interest and attention leads to miscommunication.
(iv) Distrust When the sender and the receiver do not believe * each other, the message may not be understood in its original sense.