Examine the Afghan policy of Lord Lytton.
The Afghan policy of the British was based on the assumed threat of Russian invasion of India.'The first Afghan War (1838 - 42} proved to be a disastrous one for the British in India. When lord Lytton was appointed the Viceroy of India, he.was instructed by the home government to follow a forward policy. The Russian attempt to send a mission to Afghanistan was the main cause of the second Afghan War.
Soon after the outbreak of the war in 1878, the British troops captured the territory between Kabul and Kandahar. The ruler of Afghanistan, Sher Ali fled from his country and died in 1879. His son Yakub Khan became the ruler and the British concluded the treaty of Gandamak with him.
A British resident was sent to Kabul but soon he was murdered along with other British officers by the Afghan rebels. Although the British troops were able to recapture Kabul, the difficulties in holding it increased due to the activities of the rebels. Suddenly in 1780, Lytton was forced to . resign by the new government in England.
Lytton’s afghan policy was severely criticized because he was responsible for the murder of the British officers including the resident in Kabul. During his administration, Millions died due to famine. The Vernacular Press Act undermined his credit.