Describe the three parallel ranges of the Himalayas.
The three parallel ranges of the Himalayas are:
- Himadri (Great or Inner Himalayas)
- It is the most continuous range. The northernmost range is called the Himadri. It consists of loftiest peaks with an average height of 6,000 metres. It contains all the prominent peaks. It remains snow covered throughout the year, resulting into the formation of glaciers and some perennial rivers.
- Himachal (Lesser Himalayas)
- It lies to the south of Himadri and forms the most rugged mountain system. The ranges are mainly composed of highly compressed and altered rocks. Average height is between 3,700 to 4,500 metres. Some famous ranges are the Pir Panjal range, Dhaula Dhar and Mahabharat ranges. It has some famous valleys like Kullu, Kangra and Kashmir. They are known for their hill stations. The average width is 50 Km.
- Shiwaliks (Outer Himalayas)
- This is the outermost range of the Himalayas. Its height varies between 900 and 1,100 metres. These ranges are composed of unconsolidated rock material, so these ranges are prone to earthquakes and landslides. These longitudinal valleys lying between lesser Himalayas and Shiwaliks are called ‘Duns’ like Dehra Dun, Kotli Dun and Patlin Dun, etc.