Describe the following words

Describe the following words
(i) Synapsis (ii) Bivalent (iii) Chiasmata
Draw a diagram to illustrate your answer.

(i) Synapsis During meiosis-I, the process of pairing of two homologous chromosomes is known as synapsis. It is so exact that pairing is not merely between corresponding chromosomes hut between corresponding individual units.
(ii) Bivalent The complex formed by a pair of synapsed homologous chromosomes is called a bivalent or a tetrad. It consists of four chromatids.
(iii) Chiasmata The chiasmata formation is the indication of completion of crossing over and beginning of separation of chromosomes. The chiasma is formed when the chromosomal parts begin to repel each other except in the region where these are in contact. Thus, chiasmata formation is necessary for the separation of homologous chromosomes.