Describe the classification of soils found in India.
Classification of soils found in India:
India has varied relief features, landforms, climatic realms and vegetation types. These have contributed in the development of various types of soils.
- Alluvial soil.
- Black soil. .
- Red and Yellow soils.
- Laterite soil.
- Arid soil.
- Forest soils.
1.Alluvial soil: This is the most widely spread and important soil. It consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay. According to the age of the soil alluvial soils can be classified as.
Bangar (Old Alluvial).
Khadar (New Alluvial).
2. Black soil: These soils are black in colour and are also known as regur soils. Black soil is ideal for growing cotton and is also known as black cotton soil. This type of soil is typical of the Deccan trap region spread over northwest Deccan plateau. They are made up of extremely fine i.e. clayey material.
3. Red and yellow soil: Red soil develops on ciystalline igneous rocks in areas of low rainfall in the eastern and southern parts of Deccan plateau. Yellow and red soils are found in parts of Orissa, Chhattisgarh, southern parts of the middle Ganga plain and along the piedmont zone of the western ghats.
4. Laterite soil: The laterite soil develops in areas with high temperature and heavy rainfall. Humus content of the soil is low because most of the organisms get destroyed due to high temperature.
5. Arid soil: Arid soils range from red to brown in colour. They are generally sandy in texture and saline nature. It lacks moisture and humus due to high temperature and evaporation.
6. Forest soils: This soils is found in the hilly and mountainous areas where sufficient rain forests are available. The soils texture varies according to the mountain environment where they are formed. They are loamy and silly in valley sides and coarse grained in the upper slopes.