Describe any two important poverty alleviation programmes currently being implemented in India.
Following are the major poverty alleviation programmes initiated or implemented by the Government of India
Pradhan Mantri Rozgar Yojana (PMRY)
(i) This programme was launched in 1993.
(ii) It is aimed at providing self-employment opportunity to educated unemployed youth in the rural and urban areas.
(iii) Under this programme, scheduled banks provide loans at a lower interest rate to start small business and set up industries.
Rural Employment Generation Programme (REGP)
(i) This programme was launched in 1995.
(ii) The aim of the programme is to create self-employment opportunity in rural areas and small towns.
(iii) A target for creating 25 lakh new jobs has been set for this programme under the Tenth Five Year Plan.
Swarnajayanti Gram Swarozgar Yojana (SGSY)
(i) This scheme was launched in 1999.
(ii) This programme aims at bringing the rural poor families above the poverty line.
(iii) To achieve this goal, it organises them into Self Help Groups (SHGs) through a mix of bank credit and government subsidy.
Pradhan Mantri Gramodaya Yojana (PMGY)
(i) This programme was launched in 2000.
(ii) Under the programme, the Central Government provides additional assistance to the State Government for improving basic services in the village.
(iii) The major basic services covered under this
programme are primary health, primary education, rural shelter, rural drinking water and rural electrification.
National Food for Work Programme (NFWP)
(i) This programme was launched in 2004 in 150 most backward districts of the country.
(ii) This programme is open to all rural poor who are in need of wage employment and desire to do manual unskilled work.
(iii) It is implemented as a 100% centrally sponsored scheme.
(iv) Under this scheme, foodgrains are provided free of cost to the states.
(v) Later this scheme was merged with NREGA. National Rural Employment-Guarantee Act (NREGA)
(i) This Act was passed in September 2005.
(ii) This Act is now renamed as Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MNREGA).
(iii) This act provides 100 days assured employment every year to every rural household in 200 districts. Later, the-scheme will be extended to 600 districts.
(iv) One-third of the proposed jobs would be reserved for women.
(v) The Central Government will establish National
Employment Guarantee Funds (NEGF). The State Governments will also establish State-Employment Guarantee Funds (SEGF) for implementation of scheme. _
(vi) Under this programme, if an applicant is not provided employment within 15 days, he/she will be entitled to a daily unemployment allowance.
Antyodaya Anna Yojana (AAY)
(i) This scheme was laufrchid ih Efeceihber 2000.
(ii) 1 crore of the poorest among the BPL families were covered under the targeted PDS.
(iii) 25 kg of foodgrains were made available to each eligible family at a highly subsidised rate—2 per kg for wheat and 3 per kg for rice.
(iv) This quantity has been enhanced from 25 kg to 35 kg with effect from April 2002.
(v) Now almost 2 crore families are covered under this scheme.