(a) The Gutenberg Press ‘Gutenberg’ press was the first printing press of Europe. It was invented by Johann Gutenberg of Strasbourg. He grew up in a large agricultural estate and had knowledge and experience in operating olive and wine presses.
The olive press provided him the model for the printing press and he used moulds for casting metal types for letters of the alphabet. He invented the printing press around the year 1448.
(b) Erasmus’s idea of the printed book Erasmus, a Latin scholar, was not happy with printing of books because he was afraid that this would lead to circulation of books with rebellious ideas.
He felt that although a few books may give useful information, the majority of books may be just useless or give stupid, scandalous or irreligious ideas which may lead to incitement of rebellion.
(c) The Vernacular Press Act It was passed in 1878 by the British Government in India. This act provided the government with extensive rights to censor reports and editorials in the vernacular press. If a vernacular paper published any seditious material, the paper was banned and its printing machinery was seized.