Write an account of various types of fruits

morphology
cbse

#1

Fruit : The ripened and matured ovary after fertilization is called ‘fruit’.
.In some plants, the ovary and other floral parts may turn into fruit without fertilization. The fruits without fertilization are called ‘Parthenocarpic fruit’ or ‘Seedless fruit’. E.g., Banana.
• True and False fruits : The fruits which are developed from the fertilized ovary are called true j fruits. E.g., Pea, Maize, Wheat, etc.
• The fruits developed from other non-essential parts of the flower (such as sepals, petals, thalamus etc.) are called 'false fruit or ‘Pseudocarpic fruits’. E.g.,apple (thalamus is edible).
• Types of fruits : There are three types of fruits :
(1) Simple, (2) Aggregate and (3) Composite.
• In some fruits like marigold, wheat, maize, the fruit wall of pericarp is dry. They are called dry fruits. In mango, tomato, apple, orange, pomegranate, the fruit wall is differentiated into epicarp, mesocarp and endocarp. They are called fleshy fruits.
• The succulent or fleshy fruits, which are eatable in general are called edible fruits.
• Types of Edible Fruits : Following are the types of edible fruits.
1.Dupe : In this fruit, the pericarp (fruit wall) is differentiated into an apicarp (outer), mesocarp (middle fleshy or fibrous) and an inner endocarp (stony, hard). Mesocarp is edible in these fruits. E.g., Mango, peach, coconut (fibrous also).
2. Berry or Beca : The pericarp is generally juicy and fleshy in these fruits. The epicarp is distinct. The mesocarp and endocarp make the pulp of the fruits. The seeds are scattered in the pulp. The fruits of this category are developed from bicarpellary or polycarpellary (Syncarpous) and superior ovary having placentation. e.g., Tomato, banana, brinjal.
3. Pepo: This fruit resembles the berry but it develops from polycarpellary, syncarpous ovary having parietal placentation. Bulky mass is edible in these fruits, e.g., Water melon, cucumber.
4. Hesperidium : This fruit also resembles the berry but it is developed from a polycarpellary syncarpous ovary having axile placentation. The epicarp remains in the form of outer skin, mesocarp in white threads, endocarp make the membranous partitions. The edible parts are juicy placental having orginated from endocarp. Example : Orange, lemon.
5. Pome : It is a false fruit, developed from thalamus or the receptacle. The edible parts is the juicy thalmaus. e.g., Apple, pear.
• Aggregate fruits develops from bi or polycarpellary and apocarpous ovary. Each ovary develop into a fruitlet. A cluster of fruits is called Etaeria. e.g., Calotropis.
• Composite (Multiple fruits) may be of sorosis type (pine apple) or synconous type.