As the literacy rate improved in'India, printed material,especially for entertainment, began to reach even the poor in the 19 th century. Publishers started producing small and cheap books. These books were sold at crossroads. Public libraries were set-up by Christian missionaries and rich people. Those who could not read, could listen to stories and folklore. These could be read out to them by others.Books could be hired on a nominal fee from some book owners. Many writers started writing about the issue of class distinctions.
The writings of these writers were read by people all over India. Local protest movements and sects also created a lot of popular journals and tracts criticising ancient scriptures with a view to create a new and just future.