- The First World War ended with the defeat of Ottoman Turkey.
- There were rumours that a harsh peace treaty was going to be imposed on the Ottoman emperor—the spiritual head of the Islamic world—the Khalifa.
- To defend the Khalifa’s temporal powers, a Khilafat Committee was formed in Bombay in March 1919.
- A young generation of Muslim leaders like the Ali brothers, Muhammad Ali and Shaukat Ali, began discussing with Mahatma Gandhi about the possibility of a united mass action on the
- Gandhij i saw this as .an opportunity to bring Muslims under the umbrella of a unified movement called ‘Khilafat and Non-cooperation Movement’.