- Trade flourished and markets expanded in the late 19th century but it also led to loss of freedom and livelihoods.
- European conquests produced many painful economic, social and ecological changes through which the colonised societies were brought into the world economy.
- Rival European powers in Africa drew up the borders demarcating their respective territories, being called as paper partition.
- Britain and France made vast additions to their overseas territories in the late 19th century. Belgium and Germany became new colonial powers.
- The US also became a colonial power in the late 1890’s by taking over some colonies that were earlier held by Spain.