What are the different forms of power sharing in modern democracies ? Give an example of each of these. Or Are decisions inherent to the working of democracy?


In modern democracies power sharing arrangements are in many forms like
(i) Horizontal Distribution of Powers—In this form of power sharing, power is assigned by the constitution among different organs of government such as the Legislative, Executive and Judiciary.
• Distribution ensures separation of powers among the organs at the same level so none of the organs can exercise unlimited power.
• Each organ puts check on others in order to maintain balance of power under the system of check and balance. For example, legislature puts check on executive through no confidence motion, adjournment motion etc.
(ii) Vertical Distribution of Powers
• In this type of power sharing, power is shared at the different levels of government like National level and State level.
• The general government for the country is known, as ‘Union Government’ or ‘Federal Government’ and the government at the constituent units is known as regional or state level government.
• In India and Belgium there are three levels of government, i.e., local and community level government which is uniformly known as the Federal Division of powers.
As this form of power sharing involves sharing of power from higher to lower levels, so, it is known as the vertical division of power sharing.
(iii) Power sharing among different social groups
• In another way power may also be shared among different social groups such as the religious and linguistic groups.
• Among the minorities, the power is shared through the provision of reserved constituencies and women are given empowerment through reserved seats.
(iv) Power sharing among Political Parties
Sometimes power sharing arrangements can also be seen in the way political parties, pressure groups control the power.
• The best example of power sharing among political parties is the form of coalition government.
• Regarding power sharing among pressure groups and movements they participate by becoming the member of the governmental committee.