The chemistry of the actinoid elements is not so smooth as that of the lanthanoids

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dandf-blockelements

#1

The chemistry of the actinoid elements is not so smooth as that of the lanthanoids. Justify this statement by giving some examples from the oxidation state of these elements.


#2

Lanthanoids show limited number of oxidation states as +2, +3 and +4 (out of which +3 is most common). This is due to the large energy gap between 4 f and 5^-subshells. The dominant oxidation state of actinoids is also +3 but they show a number of other oxidation states also like uranium (Z = 92) and plutonium (Z = 94) show +3, +4, +5 and +6, neptunium (Z = 93) shows +3, +4+5 and +7. This is due to small energy difference between 5f, (6d and 7s-subshells of actinoids.