Trade flourished and markets expanded in 19th century. There was technological development which linked the economy of all countries.
But behind this prosperity was a darker side. In many parts of the world, European conquest produced many painful economic, social and ecological changes through which the colonised societies were brought into world economy.
(i) Colonisation and partition of Africa and its destructive effect on the economy and livelihood of the people.
(ii) Rinderpest or cattle Plague and its impact on the people of Africa.
(iii) Harsh working conditions in plantations- miseries of the indentured labour.
(iv) Colonial conquests and loss of freedom.