(i) Yes, it is true for instantaneous voltage.
No, it is not true for rms voltaige because voltages across various elements may not be in same phase.
(ii) Because when the circuit is broken, then the large
amount of induced voltage is used up in charging the capacitor. Thus, sparking is avoided.
Thus, capacitor blocks DC
Case II For AC of higher frequency, thus the inductor blocks the current. Hence, AC signal appears across L.
A choke has no impedance, if it is connected to DC line. Therefore, lamp shines brighdy and has no effect on inserting iron core in the choke. But choke offers impedance, if it is connected to AC line. So the bulb lights dimly. When an iron core is inserted in the choke, the impedance to AC. increases. Hence, the brightness of the bulb decreases.
(v) We use the choke coil instead of resistance because the power loss across resistor is maximum, while the power loss across choke is zero.