- From the 18th century, many religious movements were hostile to the Western presence. An early movement against French control and spread of Christianity was the Scholars Revolt in 1868. This revolt was led by officials at the imperial court angered by the spread of Catholicism and French power. They led a general uprising in Ngu An and Ha Tien provinces where over a thousand Catholics were killed. Catholic missionaries had converted about 3,00,000 people by the middle of 18th century.
- The French crushed the movement but this uprising served to inspire other patriots to rise up against them.