(a) Political parties need to face and overcome the challenges in order to remain effective instruments of democracy.
In India, there is a growing role of money and muscle power in political parties during elections. Political parties tend to nominate those candidates who have or can raise lots of money. Rich people and companies who give funds to the parties, tend to have influence on the policies and decisions of the party, when it is in power. Sometimes, parties support criminals who can win elections with their muscle power. The increasing role of money and muscle power in political party become threats for democracy.
(b) From the above question, I have learnt that, political parties that should not be corrupt. Money and muscle power ignore the basic idealism of the party and make the party less popular among public. Point out the quality of democracy depends on the degree of public participation.