(a) Latitude Tropic of Cancer divides India into equal halves. The region lying North to it has sub-tropical climate, whereas South to it has tropical climate.
(b) Altitude It means the height from the sea level. With increase in height from the earth surface the temperature decreases and air becomes less dense. India has mountain ranges (the Himalayas) in the North with an average elevation of about 6000 m, whereas on the coastal areas as well as islands, maximum elevation is about 30m. The Indian sub-continent experiences mider winters as the Himalayas act as a barriers against the cold arctic winds and stop them to enter in India.
The Himalayas also stop the South-West monsoon winds to escape from India and the whole Northern India experiences monsoon season.
(c) Distance from the Sea The regions located
near the sea have moderate climate and those lying away from it have extreme climate. This is due to moderating influence of ocean current.