While factory industries grew steadily after the war, large industries formed a small segment of the economy. Most of them were located in Bengal and Bombay.
- Over the rest of the country, small-scale production continued to predominate.
- In some instances, handicrafts production actually expanded in the 20th century.
- While cheap machine-made thread wiped out the spinning industry in the 19th century, handloom cloth production survived, despite problems.