In the 11th century, Chinese paper reached Europe from China through silk route. Paper made possible the production of manuscripts carefully written by scribes.
In 1295, Marco Polo, a great explorer returned to Italy after many years of exploration in China and the Italians began producing books with woodblocks and soon, the technology spread to the other parts of Europe. Religious preachers like ' Buddhist were also helpful in spreading this knowledge from China to Europe.Expensive handwritten books were still preferred by the aristocrats and rich monastic libraries. Merchants and students bought the cheaper printed edition of books.