The development of nationalism in Europe was not only the result of war and territorial expansion.
Culture played an important role in creating the idea of the nation in Europe. The following examples state the fact
(i) Art, poetry, stories and music helped express and shape nationalist feelings in-Europe.
(ii) Romanticism, a cultural movement in Europe developed a particular form of nationalist sentiment. Romantic artists and poets criticised the glorification of science and reason. They tried to create a sense of a shared collective heritage as the basis of a nation. They gave importance on emotions, intuitions and mystical feelings.
(iii) German philosopher Johann Gottfried Herder claimed that true German culture was to be discovered among the common people (das volk) in their folk song, folk poetry and folk dances.
(iv) Vernacular languages and folklores strengthen the national spirit.
(v) In Poland Karol Kurpinski cekbrated the national struggle through opera and music.
(vi) Allegory of Germania and Marianne developed national feelings among citizens.