A. Artificial hybridization is the major approach of crop improvement programme. Emasculated flowers have to be covered with a bag of suitable size, generally made up of butter paper, to prevent contamination of its stigma with unwanted pollen. This process is called bagging. When the stigma is bagged, flower attains receptivity. Mature pollen grains collected from anther of the male parent are dusted on the stigma, and the flowers are rebagged.
b. If the female parents produce uni sexual flowers, there is no need for emasculation. The female flower buds are bagged before the flowers open. When the stigma becomes receptive, pollination is carried out using the desired pollen and the flowers rebagged.