Explain the need and type of land reforms imple-mented in the agricultural sector

d.eandeconomicreform
cbse

#1

The need for land reforms in India was very necessary due to the following reasons:
(i) There were three types of land tenure systems namely, the zamindari system, the mahalwari system and the ryotwari system prevalent in the Indian agricultural sector at the time of independence. The common feature of these three systems was that the land was mostly cultivated by the tenants and the land rev¬enues were paid by them to their landlords.
This led to the exploitation of tenants in the form of exorbitant rents.
(ii) The size of land holdings owned by the farmers
was very small. In addition, the land holdings were fragmented. This obstructed the use of modern techniques.
(iii) As most of the land was owned by the landlords, so the farmers lacked initiative and neither had enough means to undertake mechanised methods of cultivation.
(iv) Indian farmers used to rely on the conven-tional and the traditional inputs and methods and climate conditions that hampered the This led to the exploitation of tenants in the form of exorbitant rents.
(ii) The size of land holdings owned by the farmers
was very small. In addition, the land holdings were fragmented. This obstructed the use of modern techniques.
(iii) As most of the land was owned by the landlords, so the farmers lacked initiative and neither had enough means to undertake mechanised methods of cultivation.
(iv) Indian farmers used to rely on the conven-tional and the traditional inputs and methods and climate conditions that hampered the productivity of agricultural sector.
Programmes Land Reforms:
(i) Abolition of zamindari system
(ii) Ceiling on land holdings
(iii) Tenancy reforms :
(a) Exemption from rent
(b) No eviction from land
© Compensation to the tenants.
(d) Fixation of rent
(e) No attachment
(iv) Cooperative farming
(v) Consolidation of land holdings.
(vi) Bhoodan Movement