Discuss the various negative factors responsible for depletion of flora and fauna in India


(i) Forest and wildlife provide directly and indirectly many products like-wood, medicines dyes, food, fuel, fodder manure etc.
(ii) The greatest damage caused during colonial period was due to expansion of the railways, agriculture, commercial and scientific forestry and mining activities.
(iii) After independence, agriculture development was a major cause of depletion of forests.
(iv) Extensive parts of the tribal belts, especially in the North-eastern states and Central India have been deforested by shifting agriculture or slash and burn agriculture.
(v) Large scale development projects like clearing of forest for river valley projects like Narmada Sagar Project in M.P. which would submerge 40,000 hectares of forest.
(vi) Mining is another major cause for deforestation. The Buxa Tiger Reserve in West Bengal has been under great threat due to dolomite mining. It has disturbed the natural habitat of the Great Indian Elephant and migration routes of several species. In some areas fuel collection and grazing are also major cause of depletion of forests.